Ocelot配置参数参考

  • Downstream是下游服务配置
  • UpStream是上游服务配置
  • Aggregates 服务聚合配置
  • ServiceName, LoadBalancer, UseServiceDiscovery 配置服务发现
  • AuthenticationOptions 配置服务认证
  • RouteClaimsRequirement 配置Claims鉴权
  • RateLimitOptions为限流配置
  • FileCacheOptions 缓存配置
  • QosOptions 服务质量与熔断
  • DownstreamHeaderTransform头信息转发
  • DownstreamPathTemplate:下游戏
  • DownstreamScheme:下游服务http schema
  • DownstreamHostAndPorts:下游服务的地址,如果使用LoadBalancer的话这里可以填多项
  • UpstreamPathTemplate: 上游也就是用户输入的请求Url模板
  • UpstreamHttpMethod: 上游请求http方法,可使用数组
  • Prioirty优先级
    对多个产生冲突的路由设置优化级
  • 路由负载均衡当下游服务有多个结点的时候,我们可以在DownstreamHostAndPorts中进行配置。{ "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/api/posts/{postId}", "DownstreamScheme": "https", "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [ { "Host": "10.0.1.10", "Port": 5000, }, { "Host": "10.0.1.11", "Port": 5000, } ], "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/posts/{postId}", "LoadBalancer": "LeastConnection", "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Put", "Delete" ] }

LoadBalancer将决定负载均衡的算法

  • LeastConnection – 将请求发往最空闲的那个服务器
  • RoundRobin – 轮流发送
  • NoLoadBalance – 总是发往第一个请求或者是服务发现限流

对请求进行限流可以防止下游服务器因为访问过载而崩溃,这个功能就是我们的张善友张队进添加进去的。非常优雅的实现,我们只需要在路由下加一些简单的配置即可以完成。

"RateLimitOptions": {
    "ClientWhitelist": [],
    "EnableRateLimiting": true,
    "Period": "1s",
    "PeriodTimespan": 1,
    "Limit": 1
}
  • ClientWihteList 白名单
  • EnableRateLimiting 是否启用限流
  • Period 统计时间段:1s, 5m, 1h, 1d
  • PeroidTimeSpan 多少秒之后客户端可以重试
  • Limit 在统计时间段内允许的最大请求数量

在 GlobalConfiguration下我们还可以进行以下配置

"RateLimitOptions": {
  "DisableRateLimitHeaders": false,
  "QuotaExceededMessage": "Customize Tips!",
  "HttpStatusCode": 999,
  "ClientIdHeader" : "Test"
}
  • Http头  X-Rate-Limit 和 Retry-After 是否禁用
  • QuotaExceedMessage 当请求过载被截断时返回的消息
  • HttpStatusCode 当请求过载被截断时返回的http status
  • ClientIdHeader 用来识别客户端的请求头,默认是 ClientId服务质量与熔断
  • 熔断的意思是停止将请求转发到下游服务。当下游服务已经出现故障的时候再请求也是功而返,并且增加下游服务器和API网关的负担。这个功能是用的Pollly来实现的,我们只需要为路由做一些简单配置即可"QoSOptions": { "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking":3, "DurationOfBreak":5, "TimeoutValue":5000 }
  • ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking 允许多少个异常请求
  • DurationOfBreak 熔断的时间,单位为秒
  • TimeoutValue 如果下游请求的处理时间超过多少则自如将请求设置为超时

认证

如果我们需要对下游API进行认证以及鉴权服务的,则首先Ocelot 网关这里需要添加认证服务。这和我们给一个单独的API或者ASP.NET Core Mvc添加认证服务没有什么区别。

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    var authenticationProviderKey = "TestKey";

    services.AddAuthentication()
        .AddJwtBearer(authenticationProviderKey, x =>
        {
        });
}

然后在ReRoutes的路由模板中的AuthenticationOptions进行配置,只需要我们的AuthenticationProviderKey一致即可。

"ReRoutes": [{
        "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
            {
                "Host": "localhost",
                "Port": 51876,
            }
        ],
        "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/",
        "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/",
        "UpstreamHttpMethod": ["Post"],
        "ReRouteIsCaseSensitive": false,
        "DownstreamScheme": "http",
        "AuthenticationOptions": {
            "AuthenticationProviderKey": "TestKey",
            "AllowedScopes": []
        }
    }]

JWT Tokens

要让网关支持JWT 的认证其实和让API支持JWT  Token的认证是一样的

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    var authenticationProviderKey = "TestKey";

    services.AddAuthentication()
        .AddJwtBearer(authenticationProviderKey, x =>
        {
            x.Authority = "test";
            x.Audience = "test";
        });

    services.AddOcelot();
}

Identity Server Bearer Tokens

添加Identity Server的认证也是一样

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    var authenticationProviderKey = "TestKey";
    var options = o =>
        {
            o.Authority = "https://whereyouridentityserverlives.com";
            o.ApiName = "api";
            o.SupportedTokens = SupportedTokens.Both;
            o.ApiSecret = "secret";
        };

    services.AddAuthentication()
        .AddIdentityServerAuthentication(authenticationProviderKey, options);

    services.AddOcelot();
}

Allowed Scopes

这里的Scopes将从当前 token 中的 claims中来获取,我们的鉴权服务将依靠于它来实现 。当前路由的下游API需要某个权限时,我们需要在这里声明 。和oAuth2中的 scope意义一致。

鉴权

我们通过认证中的AllowedScopes 拿到claims之后,如果要进行权限的鉴别需要添加以下配置

"RouteClaimsRequirement": {
    "UserType": "registered"
}

当前请求上下文的token中所带的claims如果没有 name=”UserType” 并且 value=”registered” 的话将无法访问下游服务。

请求头转化

请求头转发分两种:转化之后传给下游和从下游接收转化之后传给客户端。在Ocelot的配置里面叫做Pre  Downstream Request和Post Downstream Request。目前的转化只支持查找和替换。我们用到的配置主要是 UpstreamHeaderTransform 和 DownstreamHeaderTransform

Pre Downstream Request

"Test": "http://www.bbc.co.uk/, http://ocelot.com/"

比如我们将客户端传过来的Header中的 Test 值改为 http://ocelot.com/之后再传给下游

 "UpstreamHeaderTransform": {
    "Test": "http://www.bbc.co.uk/, http://ocelot.com/"
},

Post Downstream Request

而我们同样可以将下游Header中的Test再转为 http://www.bbc.co.uk/之后再转给客户端。

"DownstreamHeaderTransform": {
    "Test": "http://www.bbc.co.uk/, http://ocelot.com/"
},

变量

在请求头转化这里Ocelot为我们提供了两个变量:BaseUrl和DownstreamBaseUrl。BaseUrl就是我们在GlobalConfiguration里面配置的BaseUrl,后者是下游服务的Url。这里用301跳转做一个示例如何使用这两个变量。

默认的301跳转,我们会返回一个Location的头,于是我们希望将http://www.bbc.co.uk 替换为 http://ocelot.com,后者者网关对外的域名。

"DownstreamHeaderTransform": {
    "Location": "http://www.bbc.co.uk/, http://ocelot.com/"
},
 "HttpHandlerOptions": {
    "AllowAutoRedirect": false,
},

我们通过DownstreamHeaderTranfrom将下游返回的请求头中的Location替换为了网关的域名,而不是下游服务的域名。所以在这里我们也可以使用BaseUrl来做为变量替换。

"DownstreamHeaderTransform": {
    "Location": "http://localhost:6773, {BaseUrl}"
},
 "HttpHandlerOptions": {
    "AllowAutoRedirect": false,
},

当我们的下游服务有多个的时候,我们就没有办法找到前面的那个http://localhost:6773,因为它可能是多个值。所以这里我们可以使用DownstreamBaseUrl。

"DownstreamHeaderTransform": {
    "Location": "{DownstreamBaseUrl}, {BaseUrl}"
},
 "HttpHandlerOptions": {
    "AllowAutoRedirect": false,
},


Claims转化

Claims转化

Claims转化功能可以将Claims中的值转化到请求头、Query String、或者下游的Claims中,对于Claims的转化,比较特殊的一点是它提供了一种对字符串进行解析的方法。举个例子,比如我们有一个sub的claim。这个claims的 name=”sub” value=”usertypevalue|useridvalue”,实际上我们不会弄这么复杂的value,它是拼接来的,但是我们为了演示这个字符串解析的功能,所以使用了这么一个复杂的value。

Ocelot为我们提供的功能分为三段,第一段是Claims[sub],很好理解[] 里面是我们的claim的名称。第二段是  > 表示对字符串进行拆分, 后面跟着拆分完之后我们要取的那个数组里面的某一个元素用 value[index]来表示,取第0位元素也可以直接用value。第三段也是以 > 开头后面跟着我们的分隔符,在我们上面的例子分隔符是 |

所以在这里如果我们要取  usertype这个claim就会这样写: Claims[sub] > value[0] > |

Claim取到之后我们如果要放到请求头、QueryString、以及Claim当中对应有以下三个配置。

Claims to Claims 

"AddClaimsToRequest": {
    "UserType": "Claims[sub] > value[0] > |",
    "UserId": "Claims[sub] > value[1] > |"
}

Claims to Headers 

"AddHeadersToRequest": {
    "CustomerId": "Claims[sub] > value[1] > |"
}

这里我们还是用的上面那个 sub = usertypevalue|useridvalue 的claim来进行处理和转化。

Claims to Query String

"AddQueriesToRequest": {
    "LocationId": "Claims[LocationId] > value",
}

这里没有进行分隔,所以直接取了value。

NanoFabric 配置

{
  "ReRoutes": [
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/api/values",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/api/values",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Get" ],
      "ServiceName": "SampleService_Kestrel",
      "LoadBalancerOptions": {
        "Type": "LeastConnection"
      },
      "UseServiceDiscovery": true,
      "FileCacheOptions": { "TtlSeconds": 15 }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "localhost",
          "Port": 52876
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/identityserverexample",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Get" ],
      "QoSOptions": {
        "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking": 3,
        "DurationOfBreak": 10,
        "TimeoutValue": 5000
      },
      "AuthenticationOptions": {
        "AuthenticationProviderKey": "TestKey",
        "AllowedScopes": [
          "openid",
          "offline_access"
        ]
      },
      "AddHeadersToRequest": {
        "CustomerId": "Claims[CustomerId] > value",
        "LocationId": "Claims[LocationId] > value",
        "UserType": "Claims[sub] > value[0] > |",
        "UserId": "Claims[sub] > value[1] > |"
      },
      "AddClaimsToRequest": {
        "CustomerId": "Claims[CustomerId] > value",
        "LocationId": "Claims[LocationId] > value",
        "UserType": "Claims[sub] > value[0] > |",
        "UserId": "Claims[sub] > value[1] > |"
      },
      "AddQueriesToRequest": {
        "CustomerId": "Claims[CustomerId] > value",
        "LocationId": "Claims[LocationId] > value",
        "UserType": "Claims[sub] > value[0] > |",
        "UserId": "Claims[sub] > value[1] > |"
      },
      "RouteClaimsRequirement": {
        "UserType": "registered"
      },
      "RequestIdKey": "OcRequestId"
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/posts",
      "DownstreamScheme": "https",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com",
          "Port": 443
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/posts",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Get" ],
      "QoSOptions": {
        "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking": 3,
        "DurationOfBreak": 10,
        "TimeoutValue": 5000
      }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/posts/{postId}",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com",
          "Port": 80
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/posts/{postId}",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Get" ],
      "RequestIdKey": "ReRouteRequestId",
      "QoSOptions": {
        "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking": 3,
        "DurationOfBreak": 10,
        "TimeoutValue": 5000
      }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/posts/{postId}/comments",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com",
          "Port": 80
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/posts/{postId}/comments",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Get" ],
      "QoSOptions": {
        "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking": 3,
        "DurationOfBreak": 10,
        "TimeoutValue": 5000
      }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/comments",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com",
          "Port": 80
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/comments",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Get" ],
      "QoSOptions": {
        "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking": 3,
        "DurationOfBreak": 10,
        "TimeoutValue": 5000
      }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/posts",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com",
          "Port": 80
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/posts",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Post" ],
      "QoSOptions": {
        "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking": 3,
        "DurationOfBreak": 10,
        "TimeoutValue": 5000
      }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/posts/{postId}",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com",
          "Port": 80
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/posts/{postId}",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Put" ],
      "QoSOptions": {
        "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking": 3,
        "DurationOfBreak": 10,
        "TimeoutValue": 5000
      }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/posts/{postId}",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com",
          "Port": 80
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/posts/{postId}",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Patch" ],
      "QoSOptions": {
        "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking": 3,
        "DurationOfBreak": 10,
        "TimeoutValue": 5000
      }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/posts/{postId}",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com",
          "Port": 80
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/posts/{postId}",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Delete" ],
      "QoSOptions": {
        "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking": 3,
        "DurationOfBreak": 10,
        "TimeoutValue": 5000
      }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/api/products",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com",
          "Port": 80
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/products",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Get" ],
      "QoSOptions": {
        "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking": 3,
        "DurationOfBreak": 10,
        "TimeoutValue": 5000
      },
      "FileCacheOptions": { "TtlSeconds": 15 }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/api/products/{productId}",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com",
          "Port": 80
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/products/{productId}",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Get" ],
      "FileCacheOptions": { "TtlSeconds": 15 }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/api/products",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com",
          "Port": 80
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/products",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Post" ],
      "QoSOptions": {
        "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking": 3,
        "DurationOfBreak": 10,
        "TimeoutValue": 5000
      }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/api/products/{productId}",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com",
          "Port": 80
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/products/{productId}",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Put" ],
      "QoSOptions": {
        "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking": 3,
        "DurationOfBreak": 10,
        "TimeoutValue": 5000
      },
      "FileCacheOptions": { "TtlSeconds": 15 }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/posts",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "jsonplaceholder.typicode.com",
          "Port": 80
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/posts/",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Get" ],
      "QoSOptions": {
        "ExceptionsAllowedBeforeBreaking": 3,
        "DurationOfBreak": 10,
        "TimeoutValue": 5000
      },
      "FileCacheOptions": { "TtlSeconds": 15 }
    },
    {
      "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/",
      "DownstreamScheme": "http",
      "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
        {
          "Host": "www.bbc.co.uk",
          "Port": 80
        }
      ],
      "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/bbc/",
      "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Get" ]
    }
  ],
  "GlobalConfiguration": {
    "RequestIdKey": "ot-traceid",
    "BaseUrl": "http://localhost:8000",
    "ServiceDiscoveryProvider": {
      "Host": "localhost",
      "Port": 8500
    }
  }
} 

ocelot英文文档:https://ocelot.readthedocs.io/en/latest/

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